How liquidity and tight spreads have factored into the growth of zero-days-to-expiration (0DTE) options
The bulk of 0DTE trading takes place using options on major stock indexes, such as the SPX or NDX
Understand basic risk exposure in a 0DTE options trading strategy
The following, like all our strategy discussions, is strictly for educational purposes only. It is not, and should not be considered, individualized advice or a recommendation. Options trading involves unique risks and is not suitable for all investors.
By midyear 2023, zero-days-to-expiration (0DTE) options strategies had grown to more than 40% of all options trades tied to the S&P 500® index (SPX), according to a midyear 2023 report by Bloomberg. That explosive growth came less than a year after daily expiration trading began in the SPX and other major indexes. However, 0DTE trading has drawn scrutiny from some who believe it’s making underlying assets and markets in general more volatile.
What is a zero-days-to-expiration (0DTE) option?
A 0DTE option is an options contract set to expire at the end of the current trading day. Every options contract on an underlying optionable stock or ETF, whether it was issued a month ago or just last week, becomes a 0DTE on its expiration date. And that’s important to know because options can experience significant price swings right before they expire.
In April 2022, Cboe®, the world’s largest options exchange, introduced weekly SPX options that gave traders the chance to trade 0DTE on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. But interest in these options grew substantially, and in September 2022, Cboe introduced 0DTEs with expirations on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Now, qualified option traders can trade 0DTE options every market day in the major indexes.
What’s powered their growth?
According to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), between January 2022 and 2023, the number of opening 0DTE options positions increased approximately 60%, and for retail customers, the number of opening 0DTE options positions during the same period jumped a bit higher—approximately 75%.
So, why would a trader consider an option with the average lifespan of a mayfly? Here are some possible reasons:
- 0DTEs expire just after the market close (4:15 p.m. ET), limiting overnight market risk. 0DTE options are potentially less expensive compared to options with more days to expiration, or DTE (premiums can be in cents for 0DTEs versus dollars for longer-DTE options).The 0DTE market tends to exhibit little difference between the bid and ask price of each option—also known as a tight spread. Tight spreads can help limit trading costs in 0DTE options.
Where the risk comes in
Because 0DTE options have a trading life of only one day, they may lose most of their value within a trading session due to time decay—a concept known as theta. Then there is gamma, which tracks changes in the delta of an option, which makes it highly attuned to the price of the underlying asset. So, in a single trading session, even a minor change in the price of the underlying asset of a 0DTE option can greatly affect the value of the option before it expires.
In some common 0DTE strategies, traders may be speculating on a relatively rangebound-to-lower trading session, for example. If the market moves lower, those who sold can pocket the premium received for selling the call option. However, the market may have some surprises in store for traders if the underlying security’s value moves above their strike price. That’s why many experienced traders think it’s essential to consider stop order protection to potentially avoid assignment, though such a result is not guaranteed. A stop order is intended to limit losses and will be a sell order if the position is long or a buy order if the position is short. In this example, the trader sold an 0DTE, so the stop order would be to buy back the option, likely at a loss depending where the stop order was placed.
In such a limited time frame, unexpected volatility can teach serious lessons. See figure 1 for an example of what could go wrong. On July 11, 2023, after trading in a range most of the day with the options prices of the various 0DTEs falling, the SPX rallied sharply going into the close. With June’s Consumer Price Index (CPI) scheduled for release the next day, part of the surge was attributed to traders positioning themselves for the key announcement, which generally happens with other scheduled data releases or events. However, next came a short squeeze sparked by short covering on positions late in the day that were triggered by the rally.
Figure 1: 0DTE DRAMA. In the final 20 minutes of the trading session on July 11, 2023—the day before June CPI was announced—the S&P 500 index (SPX—candles) suddenly moved higher before the closing bell and triggered a short squeeze (traders who were short the SPX as part of their strategy had to cover their short positions by buying the SPX). Data source: Cboe. Chart source: thinkorswim platform. Past performance is no guarantee of future performance. For illustrative purposes only.
Finally, a word about account management
On an administrative trading note, if a trader opens and closes a 0DTE options contract on the same day, it’ll be counted as a day trade. However, if they buy or sell a 0DTE option and it expires worthless, it will not count as a day trade.
The pattern day trader (PDT) rule applies to traders who execute four or more “day trades” within five rolling business days. A day trade is defined as opening and closing a position on the same day. If the number of day trades exceeds the PDT limit, the rule then requires the trader to maintain an account balance above $25,000 going forward. Failure to do so will add restrictions to the account, such as limiting the trader to only close existing positions.
Because they are short-lived instruments, ODTE options positions require close monitoring, as they can be subject to significant volatility. Profits can disappear quickly and can even turn into losses with a very small movement of the underlying asset.